Di Paola, R., R. Fusco, E. Gugliandolo, R. D’Amico, M. Campolo, S. Latteri, A. Carughi, G. Mandalari, S. Cuzzocrea, 2018. The antioxidant activity of pistachios reduces cardiac tissue injury of acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in diabetic Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycaemic rats. Front Pharmacol. 9:51. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00051. eCollection 2018.
Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of heart pathology. Myocardial infarction is the cause of death occurring after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restoration of blood flow is the first intervention against heart attack, although the process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium could cause additional injury. This phenomenon, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury, is characterized by the formation of oxygen radicals. Pistachios have significant glucose- and insulin-lowering effects and can improve the inflammatory contest by downregulating both the expression and the circulating levels of several metabolic risk markers. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by natural raw (NP) and roasted salted (RP) pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. This study evaluates the antioxidant properties of pistachios on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) in diabetic rats. Rats were pre-treated with either NP or RP pistachios (30 mg/kg) 18 h prior to the experimental procedure. Results: Here, we demonstrated that treatment with NP reduced myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, NF-κB expression and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2) activation. This data clearly shows modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with MI-R injury, following administration of pistachios.