D’Arrigo, M., C. Bisignano, P. Irrera, A. Smeriglio, R. Zagami, D. Trombetta, O. Romeo, G. Mandalari, 2019. In vitro evaluation of the activity of an essential oil from Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte hull against Candida sp. BMC Complement Altern Med. 19(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2425-0.
Candida sp. represent the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. In the present work, we have evaluated the activity of an essential oil extracted from pistachio hulls against a number of standard and clinical strains of Candida sp. METHODS: C. albicans ATCC 64550, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, 4 clinical strains of C. albicans, 3 clinical strains of C. parapsilosis and 3 clinical strains of C. glabrata were used. All clinical isolates were identified by species-specific PCR-based methods. Susceptibility studies were performed using pistachio hull essential oil alone or in combination with antifungal compounds. The interactions between pistachio hull essential oil and selected antifungal compounds were also evaluated using the checkerboard method and the mechanisms of interaction investigated by droplet size distribution. RESULTS: Pistachio hull essential oil was fungicidal at the concentrations between 2.50 and 5.0 mg/ml. D-limonene and 3-Carene were the components with major activity. An antagonistic effect was observed with all combinations tested. CONCLUSION: The antifungal activity of pistachio hull essential oil could be used to help control resistance in Candida species. More studies need to be performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the activity of pistachio hull essential oil.