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Acute effects of an isocaloric macronutrient-matched breakfast meal containing almonds on glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study.

Bodnaruc, A.M., D. Prud’homme, I. Giroux, 2020. Acute effects of an isocaloric macronutrient-matched breakfast meal containing almonds on glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 00: 1–10 (0000) dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0559.

This randomized crossover study assessed the acute effects of almonds on postprandial glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in a sample of 7 men with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants completed 2 experimental visits during which a control (white bread, butter, cheese) and a test (white bread, almonds) meal were ingested. Energy, available carbohydrate, total lipid, and protein content were the same in both meals. Blood samples were collected in fasting state as well as 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240 min postprandially for quantifying blood glucose, as well as insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) serum concentrations. Subjective appetite sensations were assessed using visual analog scales at the same time-points. Within this sample of participants, the test meal was found to be associated with lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, higher GLP-1 serum concentrations, decreased hunger and desire to eat, and increased fullness. The test meal was also associated with an increased estimated glucose metabolic clearance rate, indicating higher postprandial insulin sensitivity. Overall, results suggest that almonds’ macronutrient subtype profile could have a beneficial impact on postprandial glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in men with T2D. Studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm these findings.