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A Mediterranean diet with an enhanced consumption of extra virgin olive oil and pistachios improves pregnancy outcomes in women without gestational diabetes mellitus: A sub-analysis of the St. Carlos Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Study.

Assaf-Balut, C., N. García de la Torre, A. Duran, M. Fuentes, E. Bordiú, L. Del Valle, C. Familiar, J. Valerio, I. Jiménez, M.A. Herraiz, N. Izquierdo, M.J. Torrejon, M.Á. Cuadrado, I. Ortega, F.J. Illana, I. Runkle, P. de Miguel, I. Moraga, C. Montañez, A. Barabash, M. Cuesta, M.A. Rubio, A.L. Calle-Pascual, 2019. A Mediterranean diet with an enhanced consumption of extra virgin olive oil and pistachios improves pregnancy outcomes in women without gestational diabetes mellitus: A sub-analysis of the St. Carlos Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Study. Ann Nutr Metab. 74(1):69-79. doi: 10.1159/000495793. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), enhanced with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and nuts, on a composite of adverse maternofoetal outcomes of women with normoglycemia during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a sub-analysis of the St Carlos gestational diabetes mellitus Prevention Study. Only normoglycemic women were analysed (697). They were randomized (at 8-12th gestational weeks) to: standard-care control group (337), where fat consumption was limited to 30% of total caloric intake; or intervention group (360), where a MedDiet, enhanced with EVOO and pistachios (40-42% fats of total caloric intake) was recommended. The primary outcome was a composite of maternofoetal outcomes (CMFOs): at least having 1 event of emergency C-section, perineal trauma, pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, prematurity, large-for-gestational-age and small-for gestational-age. RESULTS: Crude relative risk showed that the intervention was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of CMFOs (0.48 [0.37-0.63]; p = 0.0001), with a number-needed-to-treat = 5. Risk of urinary tract infections, emergency C-sections, perineal trauma, large-for-gestational-age and small-for gestational age new-borns were also significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: A MedDiet, enhanced with EVOO and nuts, was associated with a risk reduction of CMFOs in over 50% in normoglycemic pregnant women. Therefore, it might be a potentially adequate diet for pregnant women.