Griel, A.E., P.M. Kris-Etherton, 2006. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies. British Journal of Nutrition. 96, Suppl. 2, S68-S78
Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favorably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19% compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favorable effects on lipids and lipoproteins - these include plant sterols, dietary fiber and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk.