Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals.

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Taylor, S.L., R.W.R. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, J. Baumert, 2009. Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals. Food Chem Toxicol. 47:1198–1204.

Population thresholds for peanut are unknown. However, lowest- and no-observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs and NOAELs) are published for an unknown number of peanut-allergic individuals. Publications were screened for LOAELs and NOAELs from blinded, low-dose oral challenges. Data were obtained from 185 peanut-allergic individuals (12 publications). Data were analyzed by interval-censoring survival analysis and three probability distribution models fitted to it (Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull) to estimate the ED10. All three models described the data well and provided ED10’s in close agreement: 17.6, 17.0, and 14.6 mg of whole peanut for the Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull models, respectively. The 95% lower confidence intervals for the ED10’s were 9.2, 8.1, and 6.0 mg of whole peanut for the Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull models, respectively. The modeling of individual NOAELs and LOAELs identified from three different types of published studies – diagnostic series, threshold studies, and immunotherapy trials – yielded significantly different whole peanut ED10’s of 11.9 mg for threshold studies, 18.0 mg for diagnostic series and 65.5 mg for immunotherapy trials; patient selection and other biases may have influenced the estimates. These data and risk assessment models provide the type of information that is necessary to establish regulatory thresholds for peanut.