Muthaiyah B., M.M. Essa, V. Chauhan, A. Chauhan, 2011. Protective effects of walnut extract against amyloid beta peptide-Induced cell death and oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Neurochem Res. Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is known to increase free radical production in neuronal cells, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary antioxidants that are able to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby offering protection against oxidative stress. Walnuts are rich in components that have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The inhibition of in vitro fibrillization of synthetic Aβ, and solubilization of preformed fibrillar Aβ by walnut extract was previously reported. The present study was designed to investigate whether walnut extract can protect against Aβ-induced oxidative damage and cytotoxicity. The effect of walnut extract on Aβ-induced cellular damage, ROS generation and apoptosis in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells was studied. Walnut extract reduced Aβ-mediated cell death assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, and release of lactate dehydrogenase (membrane damage), DNA damage (apoptosis) and generation of ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that walnut extract can counteract Aβ-induced oxidative stress and associated cell death.