Abbey, M., M. Noakes, G.B. Belling, P.J. Nestel, 1994. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 59:995-9.
Sixteen normolipidemic male volunteers aged 41 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD) consumed a diet providing 36% of energy as fat (92 g fat/d) for 9 wk. A daily supplement of nuts (providing half of the total fat intake) was provided against a common background diet. In the first 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with raw peanuts (50 g/d), coconut cubes (40 g/d), and a coconut confectionary bar (50 g/d), designed to provide 47 g fat with a ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:M:S) to match the Australian diet (reference diet). During the following 3 wk the background diet was supplemented with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich raw almonds (84 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat, and during the final 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich walnuts (68 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat. Compared with the reference diet there were significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol, 7% and 10%, respectively, after supplementation with almonds, and 5% and 9%, respectively, after supplementation with walnuts.