Su, M., M. Venkatachalam, S.S. Teuber, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe, 2004. Impact of γ-irradiation and thermal processing on the antigenicity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins. J Sci Food Agric. 84:1119–1125.
Whole unprocessed almonds, cashew nuts and walnuts were each subjected to γ -irradiation (1, 5, 10 and 25 kGy) followed by heat processing including autoclaving (121°C, 15 psi for 15 and 30min), dry roasting (138 and 160°C for 30 min each, 168 and 177◦C for 12 min each), blanching (100°C for 5 and 10 min), oil roasting (191°C, 1min) and microwave heating (500W for 1 and 3min). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against each major protein isolated from defatted, but not subjected to γ -irradiation and/or any thermal processing, almond, cashew nut and walnut flours. Immunoreactivity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins soluble in borate saline buffer, normalised to 1mg protein ml−1 for all samples, was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. ELISAs and Western blotting experiments indicated that almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins exposed to γ -irradiation alone or followed by various thermal treatments remained antigenically stable.